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Author Wai-Po Tang, Vol.1, n.4, 2000. Webpublish Dec 2001. (Abstract and Introduction only)

 

Two Dimensional Analysis and Three Dimensional Analysis of the Rearfoot Motion

 

ABSTRACT

This report investigated the comparison between two dimensional analysis and the three dimensional analysis on rearfoot motion. The difficulty in determining accurate measurements of the foot motions has been hampered by the complexities and use of a two-dimensional data collection protocol (Nigg & Bahlsen, 1988). Bartlett (1989) stated, 'The advantage of two dimensional cinematography or videography is simplicity, but requires the movement to be in a pre-selected movement plane and introduces perspective error for non-planar movements; however, it yield acceptable results for essentially planar movements'.

One subject ran on a treadmill (Woodway PPS 55) at a speed of 3.5m. -1 for a short period of 10 seconds, and three footfalls' data were collated. The results showed that there was significant differences difference (F5,17 = 2.60; p < 0.05) between the 2D and 3D protocols, and this lead to the assumption that the 2D data collection was not accurate. The gait intraclass correlation was significant between the two methodologies r = 0.98, (F2,17 = 55.69; p < 0.01), and this suggested that 2D analysis was acceptable to establish common pattern of movements.

The findings of the present study supports past research that 3D analysis is superior to 2D analysis with regards to assessing the rearfoot motion or other rotational movements. Therefore, rearfoot motion analysis must adopt the three dimensional videography or cinematography to accurately measure eversion or inversion of the foot.

 

 

INTRODUCTION


Sports injuries to the lower extremities of the human body are often the resultant of excessive stresses. The ankle joints are no exception to the excessive stresses of repetitive sports such as squash, boxing and running. Common injuries like shin splints and achilles tendonitis are assumed to be related to the instability of the rear foot joint at the subtalar (Nigg & Bahlsen, 1988). Souas-Little, Beavis, Verstraete and Markus (1987) stated, 'The amount and rate of pronation and supination have been the subject of interest to runners for some time.' Past researches (Bates, Osternig, Mason & James, 1979; Clarke, Frederick, & Hamil, 1984; Clement, Taunton, Smart, & McNicol, 1981; Fredericket., et. al., 1983; Nigg, Eberle, Frey, Segesser, & Weber, 1977; Schuster, 1978; Segesser, Nigg,& Morell, 1980; Stacoff, & Kaelin, 1983) speculated that the anterior medial compartment syndrome (shin splints) and illiotibial band syndrome are caused by excessive motion about the subtalar axis. Furthermore, injuries to the achilles tendons are also speculated to occur during the take-off phase whereby the foot over-supinates (Nigg & Leuthi, 1980; Nigg & Morlock, 1987). It is the initial impact phase and the take-off phase of the foot that are often investigated via kinematics and kinetic analyses.

Due the structure and the movements of the foot - fast and subtle motions are somewhat difficult to measure accurately. Hall (1991) described, 'The structure of the subtalar joint is located at the anterior and posterior facets on the inferior side of the talus that articulates with the superior calcaneous to form the subtalar joint. Four talocalcaneal ligaments join the talus and the calcaneous. The joint is essentially uniaxial, with an alignment slightly oblique to the conventional descriptive planes of motion.' The difficulty in determining accurate measurements of the foot motions has been hampered by the complexities and use of a two-dimensional data collection protocol (Nigg & Bahlsen, 1988). The multi-directional movement of the foot would require three-dimensional (3D) data collection to ensure accurate measurement any curvilinear trajectory.

Souas-Little, and et. al (1987) found that two-dimensional (2D) analysis via video projection are liable to errors. These errors are compounded during plantar and dorsiflexion and medial and lateral foot rotation. Nigg & Morlock, (1987) supports the argument against the 2D method by claiming the rotation around the ankle or subtalar joint cannot be accuarately determined. Bartlett (1989) stated, 'The advantage of two dimensional cinematography or videography is simplicity, but requires the movement to be in a pre-selected movement plane and introduces perspective error for non-planar movements; however, it yield acceptable results for essentially planar movements'.

The objective of the present study was to compare the 2D and 3D methodology of rearfoot motion (eversion and inversion displacement). Also, to compare the findings to that of the past researches on the eversion of the foot.

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